Sunday, May 24, 2020

United States Government And The Government - 3865 Words

United States government is established by the constitution. United States is a federal republic country. The government consists of a federal power led by the president. There are state governments to assist in the decision makings by the federal government. United States federal government is divided into three different branches. The constitution allows a separation of power among the government. Legislative branch creates laws. They also have the ability to declare war on other countries. Inside the branch, the Senate, the House of Representatives, or the congress, and other agencies, are elected by the citizens. There are 100 senators and 435 representatives. In Georgia, the two Senators are Johnny Isakson and David Perdue. Some†¦show more content†¦Judicial branch interprets the laws and uses the interpretations to decide whether certain cases or events fail to follow the constitution or not. The Supreme Court is the head court that consists of justices chosen by the president and approved by the senate. The number of justices is decided by the senate. As of now, there are nine justices. The current Chief Justice is John G. Roberts, Jr. Other federal courts are also part of the Judicial Branch. Through checks and balances, the three branches maintain equal amounts of power. For instance, the executive branch confirms on the law propositions that the legislative branch makes, and then the judicial branch makes sure that law is constitutional. Power is also given to state governments. Individual states also follow the three branch system. In Georgia, the executive branch is led by a governor; currently, Nathan Deal is the governor of Georgia. The legislative branch is bicameral, meaning that the legislature consists of two chambers different responsibilities. The legislature is made up of the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Georgia judicial branch is headed by the state supreme court. Hugh P. Thompson is the chief justice. Wars and treaties A declaration of war was made with Great Britain in 1812. Although the conflict was rather minor, it had a large impact on Canadians and Native Americans. The war was resoluted by the Treaty of

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Community Corrections - 1082 Words

Community corrections is a range of alternative punishments for nonviolent offenders. There are two basic community corrections models in the United States. In the first model, integrated community corrections programs combine sentencing guidelines and judicial discretion (front-end) with a variety of alternative sanctions and parole and probation options. In the second model, some states have instituted programs in which correctional officials may direct already sentenced offenders into alternative sanction programs and parole and probation options (back-end). Both models are designed to help reduce prison overcrowding and are less expensive alternatives to prison. Widespread development of community correction programs in the†¦show more content†¦Parole: A form of conditional release available to offenders who are incarcerated. It is similar to probation but the offender is in the community while still serving some of the prison sentence. When people come into contact with the criminal justice system, they pass through several stages of processing. At each stage, an individual s risk of re-offending is assessed by criminal justice workers. Risk assessments are performed by justice professionals on a daily basis: pre-trial, before sentencing, when determining security level in custody, prior to release, and after breaches or critical incidents occur (Hart, 1995). These assessments can be either formal or informal in nature (Milner amp; Campbell, 1995). Risk assessment is fundamental to the criminal justice process because it is a means for distinguishing between offenders who are likely to re-offend and those who are at a lower risk for recidivism (Solicitor General Canada, 1998a). There has been a lot of controversy about the accuracy of risk assessments. Risk assessments are essentially predictions of future behaviour and are subject to error. The result of a risk assessment has serious implications for both the assessed individual and society: for the individual offender, the assessment will decide his or her freedom; for society, it may determine whether a potentially dangerous person will be released into the community. The community requires protection, butShow MoreRelatedWhat is Community Corrections? Essay example1105 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Essentially, community corrections ascribe to the sanctions that are usually imposed on both adults and juveniles convicted by the court of law to reduce frequencies of recidivism. Unlike other forms of sentencing, community corrections can be implemented in a community setting or any other residential setting, apart from the jails (Gendreau Goggin, 1996). Within the past few decades, researchers have been struggling to advance community corrections through the use of effective interventionRead MoreCommunity Corrections810 Words   |  4 PagesCommunity Corrections CJS/230 July 24th, 2011 Community Corrections In this paper, we will be discussing how community corrections affect society. In addition, we will examine my hypothesis about community corrections and their overall effectiveness in the correctional system. Furthermore, we will describe prison systems in foreign countries, as well as how other nations view and practice imprisonment. Moreover, we will discuss what might happen with the United States prison systems if weRead MoreCommunity Corrections1288 Words   |  6 Pagessupposed to look out for suspicious issues and incidents and report them to the police before anything happens (cityofboise.org, 2012). This helps in deterring potential crimes and offenders from committing their crimes. It ranges from block watch, community watch, home watch and citizen alert. Neighborhood crime prevention programs arose because of emphasis in the involvement of citizens in enhancing prevention of crime. It is one of the oldest programs of deterring crime in the United States. It wasRead MoreC ommunity Correction Paper1216 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity Correction Paper May 27, 2012 CJS/230 – Introduction to Corrections Community corrections programs are to oversee offenders outside of jail or prison, and are administered by agencies or courts with the legal authority to enforce sanctions. Such community corrections programs are probation and parole. There are also sub-programs that are parts of community corrections; such programs are drug-involved offenders, sex offender programs, and electronic monitoring technologies. Read MoreCommunity Corrections Is Vital For The Safety Of The Community1733 Words   |  7 Pages Community corrections are vital in ensuring and assuring the safety of the community by rehabilitating the low-risk offenders allowing cycle of re-offending to be broken and the rate of imprisonment to be lowered. Community corrections involve managing an offender’s life in the community through constant supervision and reporting to their corrections officer and, also court ordered unpaid community service and rehabilitation programs to divert their attention to re-offend, rather than throwingRead MoreInstitutional and Community Based Corrections798 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Institutional and Community Based Corrections Institutional Based Corrections Among the forces that have affected corrections in recent years, accreditation and privatization have been among the most influential. The future of corrections will be affected by everything from the national economy and current public opinion to drug-related crime and the aging of prison populations. The trends that will continue to impact corrections are intermediate sentencing alternatives, restorative justiceRead MoreThe Debate Of Punishment And Community Corrections858 Words   |  4 PagesThesis: The debate of the effectiveness of imprisonment and community corrections today still raises questions as to which sanction is more effective in the United States criminal justice system. This paper will provide a background of both imprisonment and community corrections, the positives and negatives of the two topics, and which is proven to be more effective. From the research conducted, the conclusion has come that community corrections is proven to be more effective than imprisonment majorityRead MoreOverview of Community Corrections in USA1191 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity Corrections Community Corrections are the non-prison penalties that are enforced on convicted, sentenced or arrested adults (i.e. 18 or above) for making crimes. Community corrections are basically planned for the crimes that are petty as compared to the serious offences that are murder, kidnapping or so on. The crimes that are supposed to receive less severe punishment are given in charge of community corrections. These programs focus on non-violent offenders and punish them with probationRead MoreCommunity Based Corrections Essay example1108 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity based corrections is a program which supervises people who have been convicted or are facing conviction. It is a non-incarcerate system of correction. These offenders have been convicted or are facing conviction. Some offenders have entered these programs before being in jail and some serve a part of their sentence in jail before entering the program. The goals of the community based corrections would be one of providing guidance, program opportunities and support to the offender’sRead MoreJails, Prisons and Community Based Corrections1210 Words   |  5 PagesJails, Prisons and Community based Corrections Anthony Canez CJA/204 June 27, 2013 Robin Downey Jails, Prisons and Community based Corrections In this essay I will attempt to explain and discuss probation and how it compares to other forms of sentencing, the types of prison, the origins of rehabilitation in prisons, parole and how it differs from mandatory release and finally options of community corrections. Ending the essay will be a critique on the current rehabilitation options. The history

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Integrated Life Science Study Guide Free Essays

Integrated Life Science Study Guide Test #1/Chapters 1,3,4,19 1. The scientific method- A continuous process use to collect observationsk form amd test hypotheses, make predictions, and identify patterns in the physical world. pg 4 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrated Life Science Study Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now Biodiversity- the number of different species that coexist at a given place pg. 8 3. Dimitri Mendelev- Russian Chemist; created the Period Table of the Elements; 1st 1800s to arrange elements in such a way that the showed something about it properties. Elements made of atoms-Iron, Helium, Hydrogen pg. 10 4. Creationism or creation science is the belief of the Judeo-Christians (Bible); Genesis; 2000+ yrs. The Earth is between 5-7000 yrs old. It’s the belief that it was created in 7 days. Science of Creation (most scientists believe) believes the universe is approx. 15 Billion yrs old. Earth-is about 4. 5 billio9n yrs old. No beginning and no end to this universe. 5. Stem cells- embryonic cells that can become any cell in a living organism. Source; ambilical cord Adult stem cell-restricting-almost useless to work with; medical science impeded by someones belief system 6. Work- force exerted over a distance Power- work divided by time; how fast you do work.. Power =work/time Energy= the ability to do work; we get energy from food; converts to calorie- glucose; cell-work; plants also use glucose to live 2 types of energy- Kinetic-energy of motion Potential- stored (fat) Force-a push or pull from kinectic energy; gravity energy- glucose 7. Trophic levels a. Omnivores-eat both plants and animals b. Carnivores-eat meat.. ex. Lions, tigers, c. Herbivores-eat plants, ex. Cows, horses d. Plants- glucose e. Decomposers-bacteria; worms, fungi, provide food to make soil rich 8. First Law of Thermodynamics- 1st law about energy f. All energy in the universe stays the same; it only changes form i. Glucose â€Å"sugar†- energy cells- carbon dioxide; ammonia 9. Calories-unit of energy measurement in food 1C=1000c Calorie-heat our body produces; energy inside the cell Calorimeter-measures calories in food 10. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics- g. Heat always flows cold ii. No such thing as cold- cold is the absence of heat h. No such thing as â€Å"Heat Engine† i. Overtime entropy increases iii. Entropy-a measure of disorder; a way we can measure how miixed up something is. 1. Types of animal insulation- fur, feathers, fat, blubber, skin, shells, scales, and blood 12. Entropy-a measure of disorder; a way we can measure how miixed up something is. 13. The science of Aging and DNA j. Lifestyle k. Dna l. Genetics m. Biological clock is about 110 yrs old Chemicals that age you are alcohol, tobacco, recreational drugs 14. Ecosystem- a system that includes both living and non-living things in a particular area (people) n. Non-living- chemicals; food o. Living-cells 15. Homeostasis- health, dna, good health, balance 16. Acid rain- nitrogen, sulfur, ad carbon; coal + oil fired; electricity; generating plants; polluntants mix with rain; forms sulphuric acid; nitric acid; and carbonic acid- kills plants trees; destroys auto paint, etc. 17. Photovoltaic cells- a device that converts sunlight (photons) into direct electric current Short Answer 1. Global Warming a. CONS-temperature increasing; flooding; sea level rising; quit burning fossil fuels b. PROS- 2. temp increasing during growing season which is what’s necessary 3. Ozone layer is 20 miles or more up. It protects us from UVA and UVB rays. It’s getting thinner because of pollutants Smog is a layer created from automobiles and factories- near the earth-harmful 4. Landfills are considered â€Å"biological recyclers† because 5. The 6 characteristics shared by all ecosystems are pg. 391 c. Every ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts d. Energy flows through ecosystems e. Matter is recycled by Ecosystems f. Every organism occupies an Ecological Niche g. Stable Ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations h. Ecosystems are not permanent, but change over time 6. Four dimensions as described in the Second Law of Themodynamics pg. 88 i. East or west j. North or south k. Up or down l. Time 7. Creationists believe that evolution does violate this law because life is highly ordered, it could not have arisen spontaneously without violating the 2nd law. Scientists disagree and believe that all you need to make the evolution of life consistent with the 2nd law is that the order observed in living things must be offset by a greater amount of disorder in the sun. pg. 88 8. 3 ways that heat is transferred is through conduction, convection, and radiation. Example of: pg. 6 Conduction- Convection-air rising above a radiator or toaster; motion of the Earth’s Radiation-a fire or electric heater 9. Celery makes you lose more calories than you gain because it goes back to the principal that if we take in less energy than we expend, energy must be removed from storage to meet the defecit and the amt of body fat decreases. 10. Our food in the USA is che aper and much richer than most other countries. We tend to eat in larger portions than we should. Biologically, we clone our foods and inject them with hormones and chemicals to keep the supply steady and to keep costs low. 1. 5 Questions to ask when confronted with other kinds of psuedosciences are: pg. 12 m. Are the â€Å"facts† true as stated? n. Is there an alternative explanation? o. Is the claim falsifiable? p. Have the claims been rigorously tested? q. Do the claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas? 12. Peer review is a system by which the editor of a scientific journal submits manuscripts considered for publication to a panel of knowledgeable scientis wh, in conidence, evaluate the manuscript for mistakes, misstatements, or shoddy procedures. Following the review, if the manuscript is to be published, it is returned to the author with a list of modiciations and corrections to be completed. pg. a34 13. Arrow of Time is The uniform and unique direction associated with the apparent inevitable flow of time into the future. Pg 88 14. The 3 major polluntants that make up urban pollution are nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons. Pg. 399 How to cite Integrated Life Science Study Guide, Essays

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Comparison of Romanticism and Enlightenment free essay sample

Both Coleridge and Robespierre agreed that a new form of government as necessary. They differ, though, on Robespierres idea that terror is virtue and the destruction caused by the French Revolution. As a Romantic poet, Coleridge focuses on the common person and natural aspects of the world. Coleridge agrees with the original intent of the French Revolution which fights for the common person. He feels that liberty is something that all humans should have regardless of their social class or lineage. Coleridge compares liberty to the solemn music of the wind. Comparing freedom to solemn music he shows that ones liberty s a serious matter that if addressed correctly would enhance the enjoyment of life, like music. By associating freedom with wind, Coleridge implies that freedom is universal because wind travels everywhere. These ideas tie in with the Romantic views that all people should have the right to strive for happiness. These views are again illustrated when Coleridge writes, Thou rising Sun! thou blue rejoicing Sky. (Coleridge, 102) By comparing liberty to the sun and the sky, Coleridge states that the idea of liberty is a natural right. It is not something that should have to be ought for, but something that all people should inherently possess. By also comparing liberty to the rising sun implies that the rise of a democratic government will happen soon and that when uncovered, it will be a very good thing for the whole world. Romantic poetry often referred to the natural aspects of the world as Romantic poetry strived to bring together nature and man. Coleridge illustrates his optimism about where the French Revolution could lead and the ideas it could bring to the world. When Robespierre took control of the French Revolution he immediately began to ssert his ideas of natural equality on France. In Robespierres Republic of Virtue, he states that his goal involves the well-being of everyone, the peaceful enjoyment of liberty and equality; the reign of that eternal Justice whose laws are engraved not on wanted to create a state where people do not have to fight for there liberties. The metaphor in this passage laws are engraved not on marble or stone but in the hearts of all men shows Robespierres belief in unbendable laws that apply to everyone. By saying that laws are engraved he means that these laws must stick with is citizens at all times and in the hearts of all men confirm his belief in natural laws that all are born with. Robespierre only wants people who are willing to give for the greater good. Robespierre also says, We wish, in a word, to fulfill the intentions of nature and the destiny of humanity, realize the promises of philosophy, and acquit providence of the long reign of crime and tyranny. (Perry,114) In this passage, Robespierre claims that nature intends for humankind to use the ideas of philosophy, reason and logic, and remove the monarchial constraints that have been laced upon them. Robespierre argues that humans have the right to govern themselves instead of God and kings. Robespierres believes the ideal government must be a republic or democracy as those are the only formats that allow for universal happiness. Like many leaders before him who ultimately failed, Robespierre, in the traditional Enlightenment theory, sought to use reason and logic to build a perfect society, a utopia. Coleridge supported the idea of the Revolution, but as the Revolution turned violent he began to criticize the Jacobins for the approach they took to achieve their oals. Coleridge shows this when he says, Forgive me, Freedom! O forgive those dreams! I hear thy voice, I hear thy loud lament. (Coleridge, 103) Coleridge states in this passage that he feels humbled by believing that the French Revolution could actually change anything. By saying that he hears thy loud lament he shows his emotions of sadness that Robespierre could bring freedom and that he still feels he has a duty to bring freedom to all people. Coleridge disapproves of the disregard for human life, l hear thy groans upon her blood-stained streams. (Coleridge, 103) Coleridge, in this passage, illustrates the level of violence in France by saying that Robespierre killed so many people that blood replaced the water in the streams. The imagery used depicts more violence than anyone could imagine. With this new regime, the Reign of Terror, Coleridge feels that the French created a mockery of true liberty. O France, that mockest Heaven, adulterous, blind, And patriot only in pernicious toils! (Coleridge, 104) This passage shows that the Revolution did not unify France like it should. The citizens only act patriotic towards their country when cting in a violent manner. Robespierre sought to create a utopia, but the revolution destroyed the values of freedom and equal liberty that heaven, a utopia, is based on. Rather than help the common people, Robespierre became power-hungry and turned into what they originally fought, Are these thy boasts, Champion of human kind? To mix with Kings in the low lust of sway. (Coleridge, 104) Robespierre, believing they knew the best way to reform France took too much power and attempted to mold France to their liking, but destroying the freedom they wanted to create. By using reason, Robespierre came to believe that terror could help to achieve the goals of the Revolution in the quickest manner possible. Robespierre knew that a government promoting the liberty and freedom of the common person was morally tyranny. Referring to the Revolution as a war alludes to the destructive nature that the Revolution took under the guidance of Robespierre. Robespierres Republic of Virtues modeled what a good citizen should do. Since virtue (good citizenship) and equality are the soul of the republic, and your aim is to found and to consolidate he republic, it follows that the first rule of your political conduct must be to relate all of your measures to the maintenance of equality and to the development of virtue; for the first care of the legislator must be to strengthen the principles on which the government rests. (Perry, 115) This passage shows how Robespierre attempts to take complete control of France. He says that citizens must give up rights, not gain rights, to help the government, which Robespierre controls completely. Logically this made sense as he believed that the government attempted to create was the best and herefore he needed to have all the power to do so. To him using terror to enforce his laws, which to him were absolutely necessary, seemed perfectly reasonable as it would only affect his enemies, not his followers. If the driving force of popular government in peacetime is virtue, that of Popular government during a revolution is both virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is destructive; terror, without which virtue is impotent. Terror is only Justice that is prompt, severe, and inflexible; it is thus an emanation of virtue. (Perry, 115) Robespierre in this passage explains how is destructive actions logically make sense. According to him terror emanates virtue as terror acts as a mean to enforce virtue, therefore someone already virtuous will not be affected. Logically this made sense, but realistically his actions tore apart France as the destruction he caused overwhelmed any good that his Reign of Terror brought. Robespierre consistently shows a willingness to fght his own country believing that to stop a civil war he would have to kill everyone against him, even though these sorts of actions started the civil war. How can civil war be ended? By unishing traitors and conspirators, particularly if they are deputies or administrators; by sending loyal troops under patriotic leaders to subdue the aristocrats of Lyon, Marseille, Toulon, the Vend ©e, the Jura, and all other regions in which the standards of rebellion and royalism have been raised: and by making frightful examples of all scoundrels who have outrage liberty and spilled the blood of patriots. Perry, 1 1 5) Robespierre used logic and reason constantly to work towards his goal of creating a utopia, but he overlooked the consequences that France would face if he followed through. The contrast between these two artifacts illustrates the debate between the Romanticism and Enlightenment theories. The Enlightenment, represented by Robespi erre, uses logic and reason to achieve a certain goal, whereas Romanticism reacted against that theory, believing the world to be more than Just reason and logic. The Romantic outlook focuses more on life and enjoying where you are since you might not be there again, while the Enlightenment concentrates on working towards a goal. The Enlightenment theory led to violence as it logically it made sense, but from an Enlightenment, perspective the extreme amount of violence became nnecessary and Romantic thinkers criticized the French Revolution and Robespierre for that. Robespierre became to focused on perfecting society that he did not take notice to the destruction that he caused.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Ethnic Conflict free essay sample

Ethnic Conflicts are a very important issue that can affect a whole country/state. Ethnic conflicts within a state belong to identity conflicts that are a type of internal conflicts. Sometimes the term ethnic conflict is used to describe a large range of internal conflicts . Before talking about ethnic conflict, it is important to know the meaning of ethnicity. Ethnic groups usually have collectivity or psychological communities who share a combination of historical experience and valued cultural traits beliefs, culture and religion, language, ways of life, a common homeland . Ethnic conflicts can be defined as conflicts between ethnic groups within a multi-ethnic state, which have been going on some time. Many ethnic conflicts result in a significant loss of life, a serious denial of basic human rights and considerable material destruction, some escalating into inter ethnic or internal war. The desire for secession or independence from an existing state, the demand for greater power within a state, or recognition and protection of minority interest within a society are three general issues of ethnic conflicts. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethnic Conflict or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page An ethnic conflict is usually between two major groups fighting for the power or sovereignty of a country, state, or territory. The protagonists in the most intense ethnic conflicts want to establish their independence . A minority group might insist on seceding and establishing its own independent state. It might demand an independent state within a confederation of states, or might insist on an independent political entity within a new federal structure. The antagonist ethnic groups will not be able to agree on new constitutional ideas or a peaceful separation because the group does not want to lose its power over the other group. These kind of ethnic disputes consequently become violent, some escalate into all out war which tears the country/state apart.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on The Great Gatsby Jay

The greatness of an individual can be defined in terms far beyond tangible accomplishments. In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s classic American novel, The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby’s greatness comes from his need to experience success and his will to achieve his dreams. Nick Carraway narrates the story, and his cousin, Daisy Buchanan, is Gatsby’s love. Daisy, however, is married to Tom Buchanan, a wealthy, arrogant womanizer who despises Gatsby. Gatsby feels the need to be successful and wealthy, and his participation in a bootlegging operation allows him to acquire the wealth and social status needed to attract Daisy. In his narration, Nick focuses on Gatsby’s fixation of Daisy and how he longs for her presence in his life. Gatsby’s greatness comes from his power to dream, his competence in turning dreams into reality, and his absolute love for Daisy. In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby uses his dreams as motivation for his existence. Fitzgerald uses wealth and social status to define Gatsby’s character, which is exemplified by his lavish parties and the dignitaries who attend them. In his formative years, Gatsby was employed by a wealthy yachtsman, Dan Cody. It is from Cody that Gatsby develops his appreciation for wealth. â€Å"To young Gatz, resting on his oars, looking up at the railed deck, that yacht represented all the beauty and glamour in the world† (Fitzgerald 106). Fitzgerald uses this quote to mark the point at which Gatsby encounters wealth and power for the first time, and also, he uses it to symbolize Gatsby’s social standing and economic status. By comparing Gatsby’s rowboat with the luxurious yacht of Cody’s, Fitzgerald presents the idea that money and power translate into bigger and better things. The event is symbolic in that it illustrates Gatsby’s perception that wealth is a necessity. By saying that he was â€Å"looking up† to â€Å"all the beauty and glamour in the world,† Fitzgerald make... Free Essays on The Great Gatsby Jay Free Essays on The Great Gatsby Jay The greatness of an individual can be defined in terms far beyond tangible accomplishments. In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s classic American novel, The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby’s greatness comes from his need to experience success and his will to achieve his dreams. Nick Carraway narrates the story, and his cousin, Daisy Buchanan, is Gatsby’s love. Daisy, however, is married to Tom Buchanan, a wealthy, arrogant womanizer who despises Gatsby. Gatsby feels the need to be successful and wealthy, and his participation in a bootlegging operation allows him to acquire the wealth and social status needed to attract Daisy. In his narration, Nick focuses on Gatsby’s fixation of Daisy and how he longs for her presence in his life. Gatsby’s greatness comes from his power to dream, his competence in turning dreams into reality, and his absolute love for Daisy. In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby uses his dreams as motivation for his existence. Fitzgerald uses wealth and social status to define Gatsby’s character, which is exemplified by his lavish parties and the dignitaries who attend them. In his formative years, Gatsby was employed by a wealthy yachtsman, Dan Cody. It is from Cody that Gatsby develops his appreciation for wealth. â€Å"To young Gatz, resting on his oars, looking up at the railed deck, that yacht represented all the beauty and glamour in the world† (Fitzgerald 106). Fitzgerald uses this quote to mark the point at which Gatsby encounters wealth and power for the first time, and also, he uses it to symbolize Gatsby’s social standing and economic status. By comparing Gatsby’s rowboat with the luxurious yacht of Cody’s, Fitzgerald presents the idea that money and power translate into bigger and better things. The event is symbolic in that it illustrates Gatsby’s perception that wealth is a necessity. By saying that he was â€Å"looking up† to â€Å"all the beauty and glamour in the world,† Fitzgerald make...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

International relations in theory and practice Essay

International relations in theory and practice - Essay Example Its attributes, the population, the territory ("the very foundation of principality and sovereignty" (Foucault, 1991, p93) and the authority of the government exercised upon its subjects, demanded that a dominant role be played by the nation state. Social and economic development were key factors for two seemingly antagonistic phenomena: on the one hand, there was the strengthening of the state power, and on the other hand, once World War I came to an end, the international system was faced with new actors exercising power of decision-making; the globalisation of political, economic, social and cultural relations gave rise to international actors, multinational companies, international organizations (the League of Nations, and then, the United Nations), integrating organisation (process which automatically implies a delegation of sovereignty to a higher level); among non-state actors, especially after 9/11 one can also mention terrorist organisations and "the new form of trans-national terrorism which is far more complex and difficult to monitor, analyse, and combat ()some claim that this 'new' terrorism is displacing the older forms of terrorism and has now become the major threat" (Wilkinson, 2001). This multiplication is regarded, by some analysts as being a shift in orientation from the "nation state" as the dominant actor on the international scene towards other types of actors; the motivation for such claims resides in the apparent loss of substance which the state has suffered, especially from the perspective of the integrationist process; furthermore, the arguments consider that this diminution in sovereignty is transferred to the other actors, in such a way as to legitimize their position on the international scene. Thus, the position of the state as a principal actor represents one of the most controversial aspects of IR theory. On order to present the debates surrounding the issue, the arguments and its opponents, it is important to first analyse the realist perspective on the concept of "state" and the arguments supporting its central role in the international structure of the XXI century. Seen from the perspective of the international relations, the political realism considers that if the behaviour of the states, as it had been shown up until then, cannot be reformed, it can at least be controlled. The realist tradition can be traced back to Thucydides and Hobbes, although it rose to great heights as the dominant paradigm in American policymaking during the Cold War (Roggeveen, 2001).Even so, the first valuable theory writings belong to XX st century. The classic realist theorists start their argumentation from the clear premises stated by Morgenthau who acknowledges "the nation state as the ultimate point of reference of contemporary foreign policy" (Morgenthau, 1978); moreover, as one of the leading theoreticians of realism, Morgenthau pointed out a second principle that defined the goals of politics "The main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power". When correlating the two ideas, the conclusion is that the nation state regards the practice of foreign policy as a means to